[ Lynis 3.0.2 ]

################################################################################
  Lynis comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software, and you are
  welcome to redistribute it under the terms of the GNU General Public License.
  See the LICENSE file for details about using this software.

  2007-2020, CISOfy - https://cisofy.com/lynis/
  Enterprise support available (compliance, plugins, interface and tools)
################################################################################


[+] Initializing program
------------------------------------
  - Detecting OS...                                           [ DONE ]
  - Checking profiles...                                      [ DONE ]

  ---------------------------------------------------
  Program version:           3.0.2
  Operating system:          Linux
  Operating system name:     Debian
  Operating system version:  11.0
  Kernel version:            5.10.0
  Hardware platform:         x86_64
  Hostname:                  debian
  ---------------------------------------------------
  Profiles:                  /etc/lynis/default.prf
  Log file:                  /var/log/lynis.log
  Report file:               /var/log/lynis-report.dat
  Report version:            1.0
  Plugin directory:          /etc/lynis/plugins
  ---------------------------------------------------
  Auditor:                   [Not Specified]
  Language:                  en
  Test category:             all
  Test group:                all
  ---------------------------------------------------
  - Program update status...                                  [ NO UPDATE ]

[+] System tools
------------------------------------
  - Scanning available tools...                              
  - Checking system binaries...                              

[+] Plugins (phase 1)
------------------------------------
 Note: plugins have more extensive tests and may take several minutes to complete 
   
  - Plugin: debian                     
    [
[+] Debian Tests
------------------------------------
  - Checking for system binaries that are required by Debian Tests... 
    - Checking /bin...                                        [ FOUND ]
    - Checking /sbin...                                       [ FOUND ]
    - Checking /usr/bin...                                    [ FOUND ]
    - Checking /usr/sbin...                                   [ FOUND ]
    - Checking /usr/local/bin...                              [ FOUND ]
    - Checking /usr/local/sbin...                             [ FOUND ]
  - Authentication:                                          
    - PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules):                
      - libpam-tmpdir                                         [ Not Installed ]
  - File System Checks:                                      
    - DM-Crypt, Cryptsetup & Cryptmount:                     
      - Checking / on /dev/mapper/sda5_crypt                  [ ENCRYPTED (Type: LUKS2) ]
      - Checking /boot on /dev/sda1                           [ NOT ENCRYPTED ]
  - Software:                                                
    - apt-listbugs                                            [ Not Installed ]
    - apt-listchanges                                         [ Installed and enabled for apt ]
    - needrestart                                             [ Not Installed ]
    - debsecan                                                [ Installed and enabled for cron ]
    - debsums                                                 [ Not Installed ]
    - fail2ban                                                [ Not Installed ]
]

[+] Boot and services
------------------------------------
  - Service Manager                                           [ systemd ]
  - Checking UEFI boot                                        [ DISABLED ]
  - Checking presence GRUB2                                   [ FOUND ]
    - Checking for password protection                        [ NONE ]
  - Check running services (systemctl)                        [ DONE ]
        Result: found 13 running services                    
  - Check enabled services at boot (systemctl)                [ DONE ]
        Result: found 16 enabled services                    
  - Check startup files (permissions)                         [ OK ]
  - Running 'systemd-analyze security'                       
        - anacron.service:                                    [ UNSAFE ]
        - cron.service:                                       [ UNSAFE ]
        - dbus.service:                                       [ UNSAFE ]
        - dm-event.service:                                   [ UNSAFE ]
        - emergency.service:                                  [ UNSAFE ]
        - exim4.service:                                      [ UNSAFE ]
        - getty@tty1.service:                                 [ UNSAFE ]
        - ifup@enp0s3.service:                                [ UNSAFE ]
        - lvm2-lvmpolld.service:                              [ UNSAFE ]
        - lynis.service:                                      [ UNSAFE ]
        - rc-local.service:                                   [ UNSAFE ]
        - rescue.service:                                     [ UNSAFE ]
        - rsyslog.service:                                    [ UNSAFE ]
        - ssh.service:                                        [ UNSAFE ]
        - systemd-ask-password-console.service:               [ UNSAFE ]
        - systemd-ask-password-wall.service:                  [ UNSAFE ]
        - systemd-fsckd.service:                              [ UNSAFE ]
        - systemd-initctl.service:                            [ UNSAFE ]
        - systemd-journald.service:                           [ OK ]
        - systemd-logind.service:                             [ OK ]
        - systemd-networkd.service:                           [ OK ]
        - systemd-timesyncd.service:                          [ OK ]
        - systemd-udevd.service:                              [ EXPOSED ]
        - user@0.service:                                     [ UNSAFE ]
        - user@1000.service:                                  [ UNSAFE ]
        - wpa_supplicant.service:                             [ UNSAFE ]

[+] Kernel
------------------------------------
  - Checking default run level                                [ RUNLEVEL 5 ]
  - Checking CPU support (NX/PAE)                            
    CPU support: PAE and/or NoeXecute supported               [ FOUND ]
  - Checking kernel version and release                       [ DONE ]
  - Checking kernel type                                      [ DONE ]
  - Checking loaded kernel modules                            [ DONE ]
      Found 75 active modules                                
  - Checking Linux kernel configuration file                  [ FOUND ]
  - Checking default I/O kernel scheduler                     [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Checking for available kernel update                      [ OK ]
  - Checking core dumps configuration                        
    - configuration in systemd conf files                     [ DEFAULT ]
    - configuration in etc/profile                            [ DEFAULT ]
    - 'hard' configuration in security/limits.conf            [ DEFAULT ]
    - 'soft' configuration in security/limits.conf            [ DEFAULT ]
    - Checking setuid core dumps configuration                [ DISABLED ]
  - Check if reboot is needed                                 [ NO ]

[+] Memory and Processes
------------------------------------
  - Checking /proc/meminfo                                    [ FOUND ]
  - Searching for dead/zombie processes                       [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Searching for IO waiting processes                        [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Search prelink tooling                                    [ NOT FOUND ]

[+] Users, Groups and Authentication
------------------------------------
  - Administrator accounts                                    [ OK ]
  - Unique UIDs                                               [ OK ]
  - Unique group IDs                                          [ OK ]
  - Unique group names                                        [ OK ]
  - Password file consistency                                 [ OK ]
  - Password hashing methods                                  [ OK ]
  - Checking password hashing rounds                          [ DISABLED ]
  - Query system users (non daemons)                          [ DONE ]
  - NIS+ authentication support                               [ NOT ENABLED ]
  - NIS authentication support                                [ NOT ENABLED ]
  - Sudoers file                                              [ NOT FOUND ]
  - PAM password strength tools                               [ SUGGESTION ]
  - PAM configuration files (pam.conf)                        [ FOUND ]
  - PAM configuration files (pam.d)                           [ FOUND ]
  - PAM modules                                               [ FOUND ]
  - LDAP module in PAM                                        [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Accounts without expire date                              [ SUGGESTION ]
  - Accounts without password                                 [ OK ]
  - Locked accounts                                           [ OK ]
  - Checking user password aging (minimum)                    [ DISABLED ]
  - User password aging (maximum)                             [ DISABLED ]
  - Checking expired passwords                                [ OK ]
  - Checking Linux single user mode authentication            [ OK ]
  - Determining default umask                                
    - umask (/etc/profile)                                    [ NOT FOUND ]
    - umask (/etc/login.defs)                                 [ SUGGESTION ]
  - LDAP authentication support                               [ NOT ENABLED ]
  - Logging failed login attempts                             [ ENABLED ]

[+] Shells
------------------------------------
  - Checking shells from /etc/shells                         
    Result: found 7 shells (valid shells: 7).                
    - Session timeout settings/tools                          [ NONE ]
  - Checking default umask values                            
    - Checking default umask in /etc/bash.bashrc              [ NONE ]
    - Checking default umask in /etc/profile                  [ NONE ]

[+] File systems
------------------------------------
  - Checking mount points                                    
    - Checking /home mount point                              [ SUGGESTION ]
    - Checking /tmp mount point                               [ SUGGESTION ]
    - Checking /var mount point                               [ SUGGESTION ]
  - Query swap partitions (fstab)                             [ OK ]
  - Testing swap partitions                                   [ OK ]
  - Testing /proc mount (hidepid)                             [ SUGGESTION ]
  - Checking for old files in /tmp                            [ OK ]
  - Checking /tmp sticky bit                                  [ OK ]
  - Checking /var/tmp sticky bit                              [ OK ]
  - ACL support root file system                              [ ENABLED ]
  - Mount options of /                                        [ NON DEFAULT ]
  - Mount options of /boot                                    [ DEFAULT ]
  - Mount options of /dev                                     [ PARTIALLY HARDENED ]
  - Mount options of /dev/shm                                 [ PARTIALLY HARDENED ]
  - Mount options of /run                                     [ HARDENED ]
  - Total without nodev:6 noexec:8 nosuid:4 ro or noexec (W^X): 8 of total 22 
  - Disable kernel support of some filesystems               

[+] USB Devices
------------------------------------
  - Checking usb-storage driver (modprobe config)             [ NOT DISABLED ]
  - Checking USB devices authorization                        [ ENABLED ]
  - Checking USBGuard                                         [ NOT FOUND ]

[+] Storage
------------------------------------
  - Checking firewire ohci driver (modprobe config)           [ NOT DISABLED ]

[+] NFS
------------------------------------
  - Check running NFS daemon                                  [ NOT FOUND ]

[+] Name services
------------------------------------
  - Searching DNS domain name                                 [ UNKNOWN ]
  - Checking /etc/hosts                                      
    - Duplicate entries in hosts file                         [ NONE ]
    - Presence of configured hostname in /etc/hosts           [ FOUND ]
    - Hostname mapped to localhost                            [ NOT FOUND ]
    - Localhost mapping to IP address                         [ OK ]

[+] Ports and packages
------------------------------------
  - Searching package managers                               
    - Searching dpkg package manager                          [ FOUND ]
      - Querying package manager                             
    - Query unpurged packages                                 [ NONE ]
    - debsecan utility                                        [ FOUND ]
      - debsecan cron job                                     [ FOUND ]
  - Checking security repository in sources.list file         [ OK ]
  - Checking vulnerable packages (apt-get only)               [ DONE ]
  - Checking package audit tool                               [ INSTALLED ]
    Found: apt-get                                           
  - Toolkit for automatic upgrades                            [ NOT FOUND ]

[+] Networking
------------------------------------
  - Checking IPv6 configuration                               [ DISABLED ]
  - Checking configured nameservers                          
    - Testing nameservers                                    
        Nameserver: 10.0.2.3                                  [ OK ]
    - Minimal of 2 responsive nameservers                     [ WARNING ]
    - DNSSEC supported (systemd-resolved)                     [ UNKNOWN ]
  - Getting listening ports (TCP/UDP)                         [ DONE ]
  - Checking promiscuous interfaces                           [ OK ]
  - Checking status DHCP client                               [ RUNNING ]
  - Checking for ARP monitoring software                      [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Uncommon network protocols                                [ 0 ]

[+] Printers and Spools
------------------------------------
  - Checking cups daemon                                      [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Checking lp daemon                                        [ NOT RUNNING ]

[+] Software: e-mail and messaging
------------------------------------
  - Exim status                                               [ RUNNING ]

[+] Software: firewalls
------------------------------------
  - Checking iptables kernel module                           [ FOUND ]
  - Checking host based firewall                              [ ACTIVE ]

[+] Software: webserver
------------------------------------
  - Checking Apache                                           [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Checking nginx                                            [ NOT FOUND ]

[+] SSH Support
------------------------------------
  - Checking running SSH daemon                               [ FOUND ]
    - Searching SSH configuration                             [ FOUND ]
    - OpenSSH option: AllowUsers                              [ NOT FOUND ]
    - OpenSSH option: AllowGroups                             [ NOT FOUND ]

[+] SNMP Support
------------------------------------
  - Checking running SNMP daemon                              [ NOT FOUND ]

[+] Databases
------------------------------------
    No database engines found                                

[+] LDAP Services
------------------------------------
  - Checking OpenLDAP instance                                [ NOT FOUND ]

[+] PHP
------------------------------------
  - Checking PHP                                              [ NOT FOUND ]

[+] Squid Support
------------------------------------
  - Checking running Squid daemon                             [ NOT FOUND ]

[+] Logging and files
------------------------------------
  - Checking for a running log daemon                         [ OK ]
    - Checking Syslog-NG status                               [ NOT FOUND ]
    - Checking systemd journal status                         [ FOUND ]
    - Checking Metalog status                                 [ NOT FOUND ]
    - Checking RSyslog status                                 [ FOUND ]
    - Checking RFC 3195 daemon status                         [ NOT FOUND ]
    - Checking minilogd instances                             [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Checking logrotate presence                               [ OK ]
  - Checking remote logging                                   [ NOT ENABLED ]
  - Checking log directories (static list)                    [ DONE ]
  - Checking open log files                                   [ DONE ]
  - Checking deleted files in use                             [ DONE ]

[+] Insecure services
------------------------------------
  - Installed inetd package                                   [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Installed xinetd package                                  [ OK ]
    - xinetd status                                          
  - Installed rsh client package                              [ OK ]
  - Installed rsh server package                              [ OK ]
  - Installed telnet client package                           [ OK ]
  - Installed telnet server package                           [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Checking NIS client installation                          [ OK ]
  - Checking NIS server installation                          [ OK ]
  - Checking TFTP client installation                         [ OK ]
  - Checking TFTP server installation                         [ OK ]

[+] Banners and identification
------------------------------------
  - /etc/issue                                                [ FOUND ]
    - /etc/issue contents                                     [ WEAK ]
  - /etc/issue.net                                            [ FOUND ]
    - /etc/issue.net contents                                 [ WEAK ]

[+] Scheduled tasks
------------------------------------
  - Checking crontab and cronjob files                        [ DONE ]

[+] Accounting
------------------------------------
  - Checking accounting information                           [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Checking sysstat accounting data                          [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Checking auditd                                           [ NOT FOUND ]

[+] Time and Synchronization
------------------------------------
  - NTP daemon found: systemd (timesyncd)                     [ FOUND ]
  - Checking for a running NTP daemon or client               [ OK ]
  - Last time synchronization                                 [ 87s ]

[+] Cryptography
------------------------------------
  - Checking for expired SSL certificates [0/130]             [ NONE ]
  - Found 1 LUKS encrypted block devices.                     [ OK ]
  - Kernel entropy is sufficient                              [ YES ]
  - HW RNG & rngd                                             [ NO ]
  - SW prng                                                   [ NO ]

[+] Virtualization
------------------------------------

[+] Containers
------------------------------------

[+] Security frameworks
------------------------------------
  - Checking presence AppArmor                                [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Checking presence SELinux                                 [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Checking presence TOMOYO Linux                            [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Checking presence grsecurity                              [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Checking for implemented MAC framework                    [ NONE ]

[+] Software: file integrity
------------------------------------
  - Checking file integrity tools                            
  - Checking presence integrity tool                          [ NOT FOUND ]

[+] Software: System tooling
------------------------------------
  - Checking automation tooling                              
  - Automation tooling                                        [ NOT FOUND ]
  - Checking for IDS/IPS tooling                              [ NONE ]

[+] Software: Malware
------------------------------------

[+] File Permissions
------------------------------------
  - Starting file permissions check                          
    File: /boot/grub/grub.cfg                                 [ OK ]
    File: /etc/crontab                                        [ SUGGESTION ]
    File: /etc/group                                          [ OK ]
    File: /etc/group-                                         [ OK ]
    File: /etc/hosts.allow                                    [ OK ]
    File: /etc/hosts.deny                                     [ OK ]
    File: /etc/issue                                          [ OK ]
    File: /etc/issue.net                                      [ OK ]
    File: /etc/motd                                           [ OK ]
    File: /etc/passwd                                         [ OK ]
    File: /etc/passwd-                                        [ OK ]
    File: /etc/ssh/sshd_config                                [ SUGGESTION ]
    Directory: /etc/cron.d                                    [ SUGGESTION ]
    Directory: /etc/cron.daily                                [ SUGGESTION ]
    Directory: /etc/cron.hourly                               [ SUGGESTION ]
    Directory: /etc/cron.weekly                               [ SUGGESTION ]
    Directory: /etc/cron.monthly                              [ SUGGESTION ]

[+] Home directories
------------------------------------
  - Permissions of home directories                           [ WARNING ]
  - Ownership of home directories                             [ OK ]
  - Checking shell history files                              [ OK ]

[+] Kernel Hardening
------------------------------------
  - Comparing sysctl key pairs with scan profile             

[+] Hardening
------------------------------------
    - Installed compiler(s)                                   [ NOT FOUND ]
    - Installed malware scanner                               [ NOT FOUND ]

[+] Custom tests
------------------------------------
  - Running custom tests...                                   [ NONE ]

[+] Plugins (phase 2)
------------------------------------

================================================================================

  -[ Lynis 3.0.2 Results ]-

  Warnings (1):
  ----------------------------
  ! Couldn't find 2 responsive nameservers [NETW-2705] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/NETW-2705/

  Suggestions (40):
  ----------------------------
  * This release is more than 4 months old. Check the website or GitHub to see if there is an update available. [LYNIS] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/LYNIS/

  * Install libpam-tmpdir to set $TMP and $TMPDIR for PAM sessions [DEB-0280] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/DEB-0280/

  * Install apt-listbugs to display a list of critical bugs prior to each APT installation. [DEB-0810] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/DEB-0810/

  * Install needrestart, alternatively to debian-goodies, so that you can run needrestart after upgrades to determine which daemons are using old versions of libraries and need restarting. [DEB-0831] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/DEB-0831/

  * Install debsums for the verification of installed package files against MD5 checksums. [DEB-0875] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/DEB-0875/

  * Install fail2ban to automatically ban hosts that commit multiple authentication errors. [DEB-0880] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/DEB-0880/

  * Set a password on GRUB boot loader to prevent altering boot configuration (e.g. boot in single user mode without password) [BOOT-5122] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/BOOT-5122/

  * Determine runlevel and services at startup [BOOT-5180] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/BOOT-5180/

  * Consider hardening system services [BOOT-5264] 
    - Details  : Run '/usr/bin/systemd-analyze security SERVICE' for each service
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/BOOT-5264/

  * If not required, consider explicit disabling of core dump in /etc/security/limits.conf file [KRNL-5820] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/KRNL-5820/

  * Configure password hashing rounds in /etc/login.defs [AUTH-9230] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/AUTH-9230/

  * Install a PAM module for password strength testing like pam_cracklib or pam_passwdqc [AUTH-9262] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/AUTH-9262/

  * When possible set expire dates for all password protected accounts [AUTH-9282] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/AUTH-9282/

  * Configure minimum password age in /etc/login.defs [AUTH-9286] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/AUTH-9286/

  * Configure maximum password age in /etc/login.defs [AUTH-9286] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/AUTH-9286/

  * Default umask in /etc/login.defs could be more strict like 027 [AUTH-9328] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/AUTH-9328/

  * To decrease the impact of a full /home file system, place /home on a separate partition [FILE-6310] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/FILE-6310/

  * To decrease the impact of a full /tmp file system, place /tmp on a separate partition [FILE-6310] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/FILE-6310/

  * To decrease the impact of a full /var file system, place /var on a separate partition [FILE-6310] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/FILE-6310/

  * Disable drivers like USB storage when not used, to prevent unauthorized storage or data theft [USB-1000] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/USB-1000/

  * Disable drivers like firewire storage when not used, to prevent unauthorized storage or data theft [STRG-1846] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/STRG-1846/

  * Check DNS configuration for the dns domain name [NAME-4028] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/NAME-4028/

  * Install debsums utility for the verification of packages with known good database. [PKGS-7370] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/PKGS-7370/

  * Consider using a tool to automatically apply upgrades [PKGS-7420] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/PKGS-7420/

  * Check your resolv.conf file and fill in a backup nameserver if possible [NETW-2705] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/NETW-2705/

  * Determine if protocol 'dccp' is really needed on this system [NETW-3200] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/NETW-3200/

  * Determine if protocol 'sctp' is really needed on this system [NETW-3200] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/NETW-3200/

  * Determine if protocol 'rds' is really needed on this system [NETW-3200] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/NETW-3200/

  * Determine if protocol 'tipc' is really needed on this system [NETW-3200] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/NETW-3200/

  * Enable logging to an external logging host for archiving purposes and additional protection [LOGG-2154] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/LOGG-2154/

  * Add a legal banner to /etc/issue, to warn unauthorized users [BANN-7126] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/BANN-7126/

  * Add legal banner to /etc/issue.net, to warn unauthorized users [BANN-7130] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/BANN-7130/

  * Enable process accounting [ACCT-9622] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/ACCT-9622/

  * Enable sysstat to collect accounting (no results) [ACCT-9626] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/ACCT-9626/

  * Enable auditd to collect audit information [ACCT-9628] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/ACCT-9628/

  * Install a file integrity tool to monitor changes to critical and sensitive files [FINT-4350] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/FINT-4350/

  * Determine if automation tools are present for system management [TOOL-5002] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/TOOL-5002/

  * Consider restricting file permissions [FILE-7524] 
    - Details  : See screen output or log file
    - Solution : Use chmod to change file permissions
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/FILE-7524/

  * Double check the permissions of home directories as some might be not strict enough. [HOME-9304] 
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/HOME-9304/

  * Harden the system by installing at least one malware scanner, to perform periodic file system scans [HRDN-7230] 
    - Solution : Install a tool like rkhunter, chkrootkit, OSSEC
      https://cisofy.com/lynis/controls/HRDN-7230/

  Follow-up:
  ----------------------------
  - Show details of a test (lynis show details TEST-ID)
  - Check the logfile for all details (less /var/log/lynis.log)
  - Read security controls texts (https://cisofy.com)
  - Use --upload to upload data to central system (Lynis Enterprise users)

================================================================================

  Lynis security scan details:

  Hardening index : 66 [#############       ]
  Tests performed : 236
  Plugins enabled : 1

  Components:
  - Firewall               [V]
  - Malware scanner        [X]

  Scan mode:
  Normal [V]  Forensics [ ]  Integration [ ]  Pentest [ ]

  Lynis modules:
  - Compliance status      [?]
  - Security audit         [V]
  - Vulnerability scan     [V]

  Files:
  - Test and debug information      : /var/log/lynis.log
  - Report data                     : /var/log/lynis-report.dat

================================================================================

  Lynis 3.0.2

  Auditing, system hardening, and compliance for UNIX-based systems
  (Linux, macOS, BSD, and others)

  2007-2020, CISOfy - https://cisofy.com/lynis/
  Enterprise support available (compliance, plugins, interface and tools)

================================================================================

  [TIP]: Enhance Lynis audits by adding your settings to custom.prf (see /etc/lynis/default.prf for all settings)